US4707322A – Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making – Google Patents

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Material Details

Radioactive decay is the loss of elementary particles from an unstable nucleus, ultimately changing the unstable element into another more stable element. There are five types of radioactive decay: alpha emission, beta emission, positron emission, electron capture, and gamma emission. Each type of decay emits a specific particle which changes the type of product produced.


Berrylium-7 elucidates sediment dynamics i. Sediment samples from 43 locations within the estuary show that 7Be deposition is spatially complex, but were statistically indistinguishable a year apart. Weekly time series of sediments indicate 7 that levels are nearly constant on this shorter time scale on ceradio active decay is taken into account. Be levels in sediments area balance between steady losses through radioactive decay and periodic pulse inputs following rainstorms. Variations in sedimentary 7Be levels at very short meters and longer km distances, and changes at time scales from hours to years, indicate that a large number of samples are required to capture all the variability in these highly dynamic systems.

The current study differs from previous research in that a large number of measurements were conducted on a smaller system, and a full mass balance was developed.

Beryllium-7 Elucidate Sediment Dynamics of the Branford River Estuary, Connecticut, USA

As used in this standard: Action level means a concentration of airborne beryllium of 0. Airborne exposure and airborne exposure to beryllium mean the exposure to airborne beryllium that would occur if the employee were not using a respirator. Beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test BeLPT means the measurement of blood lymphocyte proliferation in a laboratory test when lymphocytes are challenged with a soluble beryllium salt.

CBD diagnostic center means a medical diagnostic center that has an on-site pulmonary specialist and on-site facilities to perform a clinical evaluation for the presence of chronic beryllium disease CBD. This evaluation must include pulmonary function testing as outlined by the American Thoracic Society criteria , bronchoalveolar lavage BAL , and transbronchial biopsy.

Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are.

Radiometric dating , radioactive dating or radioisotope dating is a technique which is used to date materials such as rocks or carbon , in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed. The method compares the abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope within the material to the abundance of its decay products, which form at a known constant rate of decay.

Together with stratigraphic principles , radiometric dating methods are used in geochronology to establish the geologic time scale. By allowing the establishment of geological timescales, it provides a significant source of information about the ages of fossils and the deduced rates of evolutionary change. Radiometric dating is also used to date archaeological materials, including ancient artifacts. Different methods of radiometric dating vary in the timescale over which they are accurate and the materials to which they can be applied.

All ordinary matter is made up of combinations of chemical elements , each with its own atomic number , indicating the number of protons in the atomic nucleus. Additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes , with each isotope of an element differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

Radioactive Decay Rates

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THE existence of beryllium-7, produced naturally by cosmic-ray interactions with atmospheric constituents, was first reported in rain-water by Arnold and.

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Revising the Beryllium Standard for General Industry

Beryllium atomic number 4 has twelve isotopes, but only three are routinely measured: 7 Be, 9 Be, and 10 Be. Although both 7 Be and 10 Be have been used in geological, geomorphological, and geographical studies, we focus here on 10 Be. We consider both 10 Be i and 10 Be m ; 10 Be i has been used to solve many more problems in Earth Science than 10 Be m , and our review reflects this.

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Beryllium has one stable isotope and one cosmogenic isotope. It is most commonly used for dating geomorphic features and determining erosion rates. Cost of Analysis return to top. However, for a light isotope the abundance of beryllium in the solar system is anomalously low. Cosmogenic production in the upper atmosphere 10 Be half-life of 1. Beryllium is rapidly washed from the atmosphere by precipitation, and is subsequently incorporated in continental and marine sediments.

Cosmogenic production at the earth’s surface 10 Be is also produced at the surface of the earth by direct cosmic ray irradiation of target atoms in geologic materials. In quartz, 10 Be is produced by spallation from the interaction of cosmic rays with oxygen and silicon and by negative mu-meson capture of 28 Si; 26 Al is similarly produced in quartz by cosmic ray spallation of 26 Si and mu-meson capture.

The rate of this production is dependent on cosmic-ray flux, which increases with latitude and elevation.


Volume 50 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry treats Beryllium and its cosmogenic isotopes. This volume includes an overview of Be studies in the earth sciences and a systematic classification of Be minerals based on their crystal structure. It treats the analysis of these minerals by the secondary ion mass spectroscopy as well as experimental studies of systems involving Be.

OSHA is further revising proposed paragraph (k)(7) by adding a new a Federal Register notice confirming the effective date of the DFR as.

Foley, Nora K. Beryllium is a mineral commodity that is used in a variety of industries to make products that are essential for the smooth functioning of a modern society. Two minerals, bertrandite which is supplied domestically and beryl which is currently supplied solely by imports , are necessary to ensure a stable supply of high-purity beryllium metal, alloys, and metal-matrix composites and beryllium oxide ceramics. Although bertrandite is the source mineral for more than 90 percent of the beryllium produced globally, industrial beryl is critical for the production of the very high purity beryllium metal needed for some strategic applications.

The current sole domestic source of beryllium is bertrandite ore from the Spor Mountain deposit in Utah; beryl is imported mainly from Brazil, China, Madagascar, Mozambique, and Portugal. High-purity beryllium metal is classified as a strategic and critical material by the Strategic Materials Protection Board of the U. Department of Defense because it is used in products that are vital to national security.

Beryllium is maintained in the U. Because of its unique chemical properties, beryllium is indispensable for many important industrial products used in the aerospace, computer, defense, medical, nuclear, and telecommunications industries. For example, high-performance alloys of beryllium are used in many specialized, high-technology electronics applications, as they are energy efficient and can be used to fabricate miniaturized components.

Beryllium -copper alloys are used as contacts and connectors, switches, relays, and shielding for everything from cell phones to thermostats, and beryllium -nickel alloys excel in producing wear-resistant and shape-retaining high-temperature springs. Beryllium metal composites, which combine the fabrication ability of aluminum with the thermal conductivity and highly elastic modulus of beryllium , are ideal for.

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